The natural lens of the eye is transparent. When a cataract clouds the lens of the eye, it leads to vision loss. This cloudiness prevents light from passing through the eye and due to this the vision of the person turns blurry. It can affect a single eye at a time or even both the eyes. This condition is especially common amongst people over the age of 55.

Types of Cataract
  • Senile Cataract:-Due to aging
  • Secondary cataract:-This form of cataract usually develops due to previous eye
  • Traumatic cataract: -It is triggered by an eye injury.
  • Radiation cataract: - Continuous exposure to radiation may result in Radiation cataract.
  • Congenital cataract: - This form of cataract is present at birth.
Hyper-mature Cataract
Nuclear Cataract
Posterior subcapsular cataract
Traumatic Cataract
Congenital Cataract
Complicated Secondary cataract
Symptoms
  • Cataracts may take a lot of time to develop and remain asymptomatic for long
  • Reading or driving a car during the night may be a challenge
  • Long distance vision is affected
  • Seeing people’s facial expressions might be tough
  • Blurry vision is very common in patients
  • Patients see a halo around bright objects and sometimes even have double vision
  • Eyeglasses need to be changed regularly and soon become less effective
  • Small patches or dots may appear on the patient’s field of vision.
  • In advanced cases, there might be pain or inflammation as well

Surgery

It is done under anaesthesia, where the patient will feel no pain. Anaesthesia can be in the form of a local injection or could just be performed by instilling anaesthetic eye drops (topical anaesthesia). Patients will be aware of a bright light during the surgery but will not experience pain. Patients return home on the same day, infact within 20-30 minutes post-surgery.

The surgery process involves removing the old cloudy lens with ultrasound energy/Laser and replacing it with an artificial lens. The different types of lens that can be used are:

  • Monofocal Lens:- Fixed strength lens usually for distant viewing.
  • Multifocal Lens:- Lens may have two or more strength is for both near and distant viewing.
  • Extended Depth of Focus (EDOF or EDF), or Extended Range of Vision is a new technology that has recently emerged in the treatment of Presbyopia-correcting IOLs. In contrast to multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) used in treatment of presbyopia, EDOF lenses work by creating a single elongated focal point to enhance “range of vision” or “depth of focus”. This lens is similar to the human eye and allows the eye to focus on whatever required (near or distant).
Monofocal Lens
Simulated Vision through Monofocal Lens
Multifocal Lens
Simulated Vision Through Multifocal Lens

Post-Operation

In most cases, the patient experiences an improvement in vision almost immediately. The cut in the eye heals by itself though it might take a few weeks to heal completely. Patients can follow their daily routine but vigorous activities should be avoided for a while. A new pair of eyeglasses will be needed and the eye test can be done after a few weeks post-surgery. If both the eyes need surgery, the surgeries can be done a week apart.

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