Diabetologist Consultation

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease caused by increased blood glucose or blood sugar. Blood sugar is the primary source of energy that is derived from our food. A hormone called Insulin secreted by the pancreas, helps glucose from food to get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is unable to use the insulin well thereby causing the Glucose to stay in your blood and not reach your cells. This accumulation of the blood glucose over a period of time can cause health problems.

Although there is no cure for diabetes but the Diabetologists at TESS can help you manage your condition and stay healthy.

What are the important aspects to be taken care of for a Diabetic

When you have diabetes, proper foot care is very vital. Poor footcare may lead to amputation of a foot or leg. A diabetic person is more vulnerable to foot problems, because diabetes can damage your nerves and reduce blood flow to your feet.

Take Care of Your Toenails
  • Cut toenails post a shower, when they are soft
  • Cut toenails straight across and smoothen them with a nail filer
  • Avoid cutting into the corners of toes
Some Do’s & Don’ts in footcare
  • Never walk barefoot
  • Always wear fitting footwear that are neither too loose nor too tight
  • Inspect your feet daily. Look for any redness, swelling or any injury
  • Never soak feet in water for long periods
  • Never vigorously massage your feet
  • Cut toenails straight across and smoothen them with a nail filer
  • In event of any injury, do not self medicate or treat; consult your doctor immediately
When should you see your diabetologist?

You need to consult the diabetologist urgently if you have any of the below foot conditions

  • Athlete's foot (cracking between the toes)
  • Sores or wounds on your feet
  • Ingrown toenails
  • Increasing numbness or pain
  • Calluses
  • Redness
  • Blackening of skin
  • Bunions
  • Infection
  • Hammer toes (it’s a condition wherein the middle joint of toes is bent downward permanently)
How to avoid diabetic related health complications?

Although Diabetic foot complications can be prevented but if not addressed well they can get more and more complicated. The following measures help prevent complications:

  • control diabetes as effectively as possible
  • attend foot screening
  • Do not ignore foot problems such as corns and hard skin; get them completely treated
  • don't trust the nerves in your feet if they are damaged; trust your sight and your instincts!
What are the Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar

  • Excessive hunger, sweating, weakness, giddiness, headache palpitations, tremors, nervousness, irritability, confusion
  • Severe hypoglycemia can give rise to convulsions and even unconsciousness.

Causes of Low Blood Sugar

  • Delayed meals, missed or too little food
  • Extra physical activity or physical exertion especially on empty stomach
  • Excessive insulin dosage or tablets
  • Alcohol on empty stomach.

Low Blood Sugar Treatment

  • Test your blood glucose
  • If < 70mgp and/or symptoms of low sugar — eat your meals if delayed or take a snack
  • If still sugar is low or very low sugar- 3-4 tsp glucose powder/ white sugar OR fruit juices/colas/sherbets OR 2-3 tsp honey
  • Recheck sugars, if unconscious or still low, get medical help.

Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment

What is diabetic eye disease?

Diabetic eye disease is a general term for the visual complications that result from diabetes. It can cause severe vision loss or even blindness.

Diabetic eye disease may include:

Diabetic retinopathy Damage to the blood vessels in the retina. This is the most common form of diabetic eye disease.

Cataract Clouding of the eye's lens

Glaucoma Increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that leads to optic nerve damage and loss of vision

Cataract and glaucoma also affect many people who do not have diabetes.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is one of the major problems in India which commonly develops because of an inappropriate diet , unhealthy lifestyle patterns or hereditary background. Diabetes are of two types (I and II), both of these are prone to developing a condition called Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes affects the eye by weakening the blood vessels considerably. These tiny blood vessels start to leak fluid, blood in the retina and eventually lead to loss of vision. High glucose and genetics further influence the progression of this condition. Proliferative and Non-Proliferative are the two stages of Diabetic Retinopathy. In the Non-Proliferative stage, the blood vessels start leaking and in the Proliferative stage, the weak blood vessels further grow and severe bleeding occurs in the vitreous and on the surface of the retina leading to permanent vision loss.

Treatment:

Laser is one of the most popular treatments for this condition. It aims to slow down the progression of this disease in an attempt to secure vision. However newer injections are available which not only stabilizes the disease but can also lead to visual gain. Surgery is usually reserved for advanced cases involving Non resolving or repeated vitreous hemorrhage and Retinal Detachment.

Diabetes Diet Management

Why is diet management an important aspect for a diabetic?

Healthy Eating for People with Diabetes is important because it can help:

  • Maintain blood glucose control and thereby reduce the risk of complications
  • Reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the tissue damage associated with high blood glucose levels
  • Support management of body weight
  • Maintain quality of life
  • A healthy diet should include a wide variety of foods, not too many fatty and sugary foods, not too much salt and plenty of fibre-rich foods including fruit and vegetables
  • Eat complex carbohydrates such as those found in wheat, bajra, jawar, ragi etc. these are better than sugars like fructose , sucrose (simple sugars) present in table sugar, honey, fruit juices, colas, sherbets etc.
  • Green leafy vegetables and all types of raw vegetables such as cucumber, carrot, cabbage, tomato, onion, etc can be eaten in plenty to fill the stomach
  • Use boiled, steamed and grilled foods instead of fried foods
  • Fiber rich foods such as whole grain & pulses & raw vegetables are better. Fruits should be eaten with peels
  • No fasting or feasting

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